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4. 1_4 RIP (Router Information Protocol)

As I told you on our previous slide, RIP is a distance vector protocol. Rather than using the Rip protocol to create their routing table based on information exchange between routers, this router sent routing updates every 30 seconds to each other as broadcast for Rep version one and as multiple guests in Rip version two. Rip uses the bellman for the algorithm guys, and the actual metric of Rip is the hop count. Rip can support a maximum hop count of 15 others. For example, as you can see on the screen, if you want to reach the other network from the other one, the best path will be the path above because we need just one more hop to get to the destination. But for the link below, as you can see here, we use two more hops, which means two more routers to get the destination, which means the worst path for the rep. That's why we are using this path instead of this path if we are using RIP as a dynamic routing protocol. So, let's get started on creating a routing table in rep. In the first stage, all routers install their directly connected networks on the routing table. As you can see, Rather One instals 1041 and 1042. This guy instals the 42 and 321; this guy instals the 43 and 44. Then, in the next stage, routes are exchanged between neighbours and the routing tables begin to grow. As you can see, this guy is the first to know about these networks, followed by Rodo Two and this guy. They then begin to exchange rods with one another. For example, Router Two says to Router One, "Hey, RodderOne, I have a network that is 1043 and that is directly connected to me, which means zero hopcounts." Rather One adds this to its routing table. As you can see, the network 1043 and theinterface is the face 100 as you can see. and the hope count is one. Because Rather Two is saying that "hey, 1043 is directly connected to me," rather than getting this update and saying "if this guy is directly connected to me," if this guy is directly connected to you, I'm sorry, it means one hope away from me, which is actually you. Okay, then after all routes are exchanged, as you can see, a full routing table is established. Rather Three, for example, announced the district and told me that this guy is directly connected to me, and Roger Three installed this as the one hop away and advertised this route to Router One once more. Rather, I received it and told him, "Hey, router too." If this route 44 is one hop away from you, that means it is two hops away from me, and I installed it with a hop of two. And here is the rep's configuration. That's pretty straightforward, guys. And let's go ahead with Router One, Router Two, and Router Three. We are configuring RIP. In this example, we are typing in the configmoderouter Rip, as you can see here. And if we use the rep version two, we type the version and the two version two, then you'll see in here that for router one, we have two directly connected networks, and we're writing these guys in classful state. As you know, this is a B-class network. This is an A-class network. So I'm typing the networkstatements as the classroom states. For example, network 100 is zero for this network, and I'm typing 170 is zero for this network, or rather one and rather two with the same logic, as you can see from these guys and these guys. So that's enough that I just typed network 100 for this, and for the other three, I'm typing the 100 zero and the C class of this network already. That's pretty cool. And to verify the rip configuration, we can use the show IP protocols command and display the routing protocol we are using, which is listed here. And we can see also the update timers and theinvalid and flash and the hold on timers as well. And to verify the rip configuration, we can also use the Show IP Routes command. And in the routing table, as you can see, we have some entries by the R keyword, which means the rip is okay. And if we use the Show IP route command to look at the router in the IP routing table, we can see our keywords, which are rep and rather truth, that is, learning this network and this network from this guy. As you can see, I'm learning the network via 10420, which is here, and I'm learning the other network via 1043, which is here. Let's create with the rip and the g. Rip Next Generation is an extension of Rip that supports IP Version 6. Again, the maximum hope count we can use in Rip and g is 15. So let's go ahead how we canconfigure the ripen g in here. To configure the RIP ng, the first thing we should do on our routers is enable IP version 6 routing by typing IP version 6 unicast routing for each router. Then we're getting into the interface modes. Here is the difference between the Rip configuration in Rip and G: While we are using Rip Next Generation for IP Version Six, we are configuring the IP Version Six statements under the interface modes, as you can see here. So we are getting into interface mode by typing for another one. For example, the interface gig and the command became a fairly simple IP version six rip a key, which we can use at our discretion. This is my rep for this, and we are typing enable. Okay, that's pretty straightforward, and the same goes for the other interfaces as well. And to verify the Rip Ng configuration again, we can use the Show IP version six protocols this time, and we can see that the IP version six routing protocol and the routing protocol name are as you can see here, which we configured as Myrip for the previous example. We can also use the Show IP version six rodcommand to see our full routing table and the routes learned by rip in here.


1. 2_1 EIGRP Overview And Basic Configuration

In our next section, we are going to talk about the EIGRP protocol. Let's go ahead with EIGRP overview. EIGRP is an interior gateway protocol suite created for many different topologies and media in a well-designed network. AiGRP scales well and provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal network traffic. EIGRP was Cisco-proprietary until 2013, but it is an industry standard now. EIGRP uses a dual algorithm to find the best path, can make equal or unequal load balancing decisions, and can provide summaries for each router and each interface. In EIGRP terminology, similar to OSPF, we have three types of tables: neighbour topology, their routing table, and their routing table. The neighbour table includes all neighbours that are directly connected to rudder using EIGRP topology; it includes successors, feasible successors, and all other pets going to the target network, and the routing table includes the best paths for the target network. We have five packet types in EIGRP, and they are hello, update, query, reply, and deact knowledge. Hello packets are used to discover the routers that are using EIGRP. Update packets are sent if only there is a change in our network topology. For example, if a link is down or if a router fails, the query is the packet that asks if a network event occurs on the neighbour or not. Reply is the answer in the query packet, and the acknowledgement packet acknowledges the query update and the reply packets. EIGRP uses different K values to determine the best path to each destination. The metric calculation is used by this formula. The metric calculation is made by using this formula, and we have different k values. As you can see, these k values are only numbers to scale numbers in the metric calculation. K one is the bandwidth, K two is the load, K three is the delay, K four is the reliability, and K five is the MTU value. By default, k one bandwidth is equal to k three delay, and they are one, and k two load is equal to k four reliability, which is equal to k five MQ, and they are assumed to be zero and the end result. Here is the formula for calculating the EIGRP's metric. Let's go ahead with the dual algorithm. Ergrp uses a diffusing update algorithm to ensure that a given route is recalculated globally whenever it might cause a routing loop. This algorithm provides fast convergence for EIGRP. We have some terms that we use for dual algorithms. The first term, "feasible distance," refers to the lowest metric for the particular destination, and the second term is "advertised" or "reported." Distance refers to the metric distance to a destination as advertised by a neighbouring rider. Okay, let's go ahead with another term. The first thing we are going to look at is the successor. "Successor" is the primary route The primary successor is the route that is used for reaching the destination, and the feasible successor is the next hop rider that is granted not to be a part of a routing loop for a particular destination, and this condition is verified by testing the administrative distance, which should be smaller than the feasible distance of T. All right. Let's take a look at a dual algorithm example. For example, for the rather one to rather three path network from rather one, the feasible distance is 301 and the advertised distance is the distance of the neighbor, and that is ten, as you can see here. We can also get this network by using the here for the path between router one and router four, which is here, and the advertised distance is 410, as you can see in here. The feasible distance is 410 miles. And the advertised distance this time is again ten miles; as you can see, 310 is smaller than 410, and this path is one, while Rtwo is the primary path for this particular destination. Okay, let's go ahead with the EIGRP routing table entries. Let's take a look at the IP-rod output of an EIGRP-running router, which is rather true for this scenario. And we are typing "Show IP router," as you can see. And we have D in here, as you can see, which is AIGRP. Okay, it was all OSPF routers. If you're remembering this time, it is D, which means EIGRP. We are running EIGRP. And in here, you're seeing the administrative distance of EIGRP, which is 90, and you can see this value as the next administrative distance. and this is the feasible distance value. And you can see the next hope here: 1041, which is the successor device. Okay, let's go ahead with the EIGRP topology table entries this time. Here you can see on rather three, weare typing the Show IP Eigpt apology command. And, as you can see, in the disc network 50 network, for example, we have one successor with a feasible distance of 372, which means this guy. Ten 00:35:5 is the successor to this network. And because the administrative distance of this path is smaller than the feasible distance in this case, the path advertised via 10 00:34 4 will be the feasible successor. Let's go ahead with the basic EIGRP IPV for configuration to configure an EIGRP owner. We are typing EIGRP and an AS number, and we are also using the network commands. As you can see, network commands enable ERP on the interfaces that match the IP address and the wildcard mask, as you can see.And in here we also have a passive interface command, a passive interface gig, that enables the suppression of running updates over some interfaces while allowing updates to be exchanged normally over other interfaces. To verify the EIGRP configuration, we can use the Show IP Protocols command, the ShowIP EIGRP Neighbors command, and check the information about our neighbors. We can also check the interfaces that we are using to reach our neighbor. and we can see the uptime of the neighbouring ship. And please keep in mind that we have a volume here, which is kick count. That value should be zero if there are no problems in the EIGRP neighborhood; q count zero means everything is good. Okay, to verify the IJRP configuration, we have also shown the route command, as you know, and we have shown this output on our previous slides. And let's go ahead with the basic EIGRP IPV 6 configuration. To configure an EIGRP version, an ID is required. So the first thing we are going to do is type in the IP version six UniQuest routing command again. Then we are typing IPV six rodgerEIGRP and the as number again. Then we define our router ID in this section. As you can see, after doing the same thing with OSPF, we enter interface mode and type IPV6, EIGRP, and the AS number. And that's it. We are just enabling the EIGRP under the related interface, and for verification we can use "show IPV six protocols," show IPV six neighbors," and "show IPV six route commands."

2. 2_2 EIGRP Optimization

In this section we are going to talk about EIGRP optimization, and the first thing we are going to focus on is the EIGRP query process. If the router loses access to any pet and does not find a feasible successor for the path in the topology table, it queries its neighbours with the query information for that path, and this router is called the active router. Let's take a look at the figure and say that this router lost the connection to the 10 network, and whenever this router loses this network, it sends a query message to all its neighbours in the network and says, "Hey dude, I lost my connection to Tesla. Do you have any backup paths for this route for me?" And as I told you, this router is known as the active router. The router is active if it is sending a query message and waiting for responses from the other guys. Let's take a look at the output. In the output, this router has an active state and a passive state. The passive state is for a ten-three-90 network, and the active state is for a ten-two-four network. Active means the router is activelyseeking an alternate path for thedestination passive means everything is okay. I'm connected to this network and I'm receiving the routing updates, and there is no problem with the path, but if the router is in an active state, there's a problem, and that means we are sending queries, and to limit the query packets, we can use EIGRP summarization and eigrpopoptions Stop configured routers do not forward routes learned by EIGRP to other neighbors, and more importantly, nonstop brothers do not send the query message to subbrothers, and this says the bandwidth for example, let's say router B has lost the connection to one that I'm sorry about because of router C, and router D does not have any ties to another network as I drop like here. Rather, C says, don't send me any query messages because I don't have any pets that you don't know. And now for the stop options. When we type EIG We can configure the top configuration like this in the configuration router mode; in the EIGRP mode, we need to type EIGRP, and when we type the question mark, we can see the Er JRP stop options. By default, a step-configured router will share the connected plus summary routes with its neighbors; if you configure receive only, the router does not share any routes with any neighbors; the other options are redistributed static and leak map; and after the question mark, as I told you from the previous slide, if we just hit enter, which means we just type aigrp stop, we just advertise the connected plus summary routes. If you type receive, only the router receives updates and does not advertise any routes. If you type static, that is used for advertising static routes, and if you type connected, that's used for advertising connected routes. And here is the EIGRP stack active, for example. Let's say that this network (10 network) is downguys and there is no feasible successor. Then, as we discussed in our first slide, Rather, it sends query messages over all its interfaces query. Query. Query. Query which says that hey man. Do you have any alternate petto 10 network also rather one. Router three. I'm sorry that it took Rather Four and Rather Five to start sending the query message for this network query I'm sorry.I don't have any path to this network, for example, and send queries to other guys saying, "Hey, rather five." Do you have an alternate path for the 10? Router Two is asking me that. After a while, as you can see, query messages start to tyre the network and consume too much bandwidth. Please keep in mind that router 3 does not send the required information back to router 1, which it received due to the split horizon rule. And for instance, let's say that router five has a direct connection to the 10 network. Then router two should wait—by default, three minutes—and hear back the answers to the other query messages before making a decision. Even if the router file says, "Heyman, I have a backup route for the down network," and after three minutes, radio Two destroys all the neighbouring ships and reestablishes it. And this process is known as being "stuck in active." To prevent this problem, we have two solution methods: EIGRP summary routes and EIGRP staff. Let's talk about first the EIGRP summaryroutes and let's assume that networks between10270 are working behind rather two. And here, let's say that we have these networks. If these networks are summarised, for example, as "like" and "for example," Let's say that just 10 are down. We will rather send the query message again, as you know. However, other routers will say to routertwo, "Hey dude." You told me that the networks beginning with 17230 are behind me and they will send rejection messages so that no query term will occur. and the second method is EIGRP. Some networks, when using EIGRP, mean the network that is going nowhere, such as routers 3, 4, and 5, because they have no other connection. As you can see, if we configure Robert three, rather than Four, and rather That I am stuck to Rodger Two when neighbourhood is being established, and Rodger Two understands that dude, I know you have nowhere to go, the networks that you told me are the end of the way. So that if this network is down, no query messages are sent to routers three, four, and five, so we can save our bandwidth, as you can see. Let's talk about the EIGRP auto-summarization now EIGRP automatically advertises the summary route information to other AiJrprouters, and this auto summarization is disabled after CiscoiOS version fifteen zero M and can be manually disabled with the no auto summary command. As you can see, we have three separate routes, and we are combining these three separate routes into just one route on Router 1. To verify if we are using a JRP autosummarization or not, we can use the Shawip Protocols command and check if we are seeing a "Summary" on this output or not. EIGRP automatically summarises networks as best as we can see. And let's say there are two routers thatadvertise this network, but they may actually wantto advertise this 24 and 20 00:24. These guys are advertising this way through auto-summarization, but what they really want to advertise is maybe just to 100 or 200 networks, which may cause a problem. For example, another router in the network wants to reach the 100 network, but two Rodgers are saying the same thing: "Hey, whatever starts with 170 216 is behind me." So which path are we going to use? Are we going to use this path or are we going to use the path that's being advertised by the other router? So the correct solution is that auto-summarization should always be turned off, and we should use manual summarization if necessary. And here is how we can configure the EIGRP manual summarization. The command is "get IP summary address." We use the IPSummary Address, the EIGRP autonomous system number, and the network to summarise in the interface mode. As you can see, we are using 10200 with a 255-2520 subnet mask and are representing these four different routes. With just one route, EHRP can distribute traffic across multiple links to the same destination to increase bandwidth utilisation effectively. EIGRP has the ability to make load balancing equal or unequal. By default, you can load balance up to four equal paths in IGRP, and only feasible successor paths can be used in load balancing to make sure there are no loops in the paths in EIGRP.For example, if I'm using EIGRP and I need to perform unequal load balancing, I can send two packets from that link and one packet from that link. That is the EIGRP's capability. If the backbone router wants to use unequal load balancing for accessing the two-dot-24 network, let's take a look at the network to figure out how to configure this guy. To make unequal load balancing for accessing this network, we are using the variance command, and under the EIGRP mode we just type variance and a variance value. For this example, we're using two packets for a year and just one packet for the other pet, perhaps. And to verify the EIGRP load balancing, we are using the show IP route command, and in the show IP route, we can see that for this network we have three different paths. The first path is being learned via the secondpath is being learned from two and the thirdpath is being learnt from the three. Two.

3. 2_3 EIGRP IPv6 Configuration

Please keep in mind that a router ID is required for EIGRP IPV6 configuration, and we are preparing a router to perform IPV6 routing using the IPV6 unicast routing command. Then we enter router configuration mode with the IPV Six Router AJRPN autonomous system. Then we justifying our router ID in here—that's the same as OSPF V 3. And lastly, we are going under the interface and getting the interface working properly with our EIGRP. And to verify we are using short IPV6 protocols, show IPV6 EIGRP neighbours and show the IPV6 route again. Alright guys, we are at the end of our EIGRP session, and thanks for viewing.

4. 2_4 EIGRP Named Mode

In our next section, we are going to talk about EIGRP named mode. Configuring EIGRP for both IPV 4 and IPV 6 on the same router can become a complex task because configuration takes place using different router configuration modes. By removing the configuration complexity, EIGRP named mode allows EIGRP to be configured for both IPV 4 and IPV 6 under a single configuration mod. Eigrpnanged Mod is available in Cisco's Release 150, one millimetre later, to configure the Eigrpnet mode configuration. The command router EIGRP and virtual instance name are used as aidrp for both IP version four and IP version six, which can be configured in the same mode. Named EIGRP configuration arranges specific pet types under the same address family, and the most commonly used address families are IP versions 4 and IP version six.The address family IPV 4 is the unicast address family where the named EIGRP definitions for IP version 4 are created. If you want to configure IPV 4 configurations, type EIGRP, but this time replace the autonomous system number with a name. Then, if you want to make an IPV4 configuration, you type the address family to bring up address family:IP version 4, and you define your autonomous system and autonomous system number for this command. Right now, we are first defining the name, then the address family if it's going to be IP version four or IP version six, and the autonomous system number for this and the address family. where the named eigip definitions for IP version six are IP version six address families, and we define this timerouter aigrp and give it a name. Then we define the address family. This time we are using IP version six, as you can see in the IP version six configuration, and we are using the autonomy stem number again. Let's take a look at what we can configure under the address family configuration mode. Here again, we type the named mode and we type, "We are going to configure IP version six with autonomy," and whenever we type a question mark, here are the options that we can define for the address family. To enter address family interface configuration, we can define the AF interface. For example we can define the metric, we canspecify an IP version six neighbourhood by using neighborcommand, we can shut down the address family, wecan go under the topology mode by using topologycommand and we can use the EIGRP address familyspecific configurations by typing EIGRP. As you can see, we also have help exit, address family defaults, and enter options. But the most important ones are the ones that I mentioned, and here is the Interface F interface mode. If you want to configure an interface, we use the AF interface and the interface name command EIGRP. Here I type the names of the HRP and IP versions (six address families). And under the interface mode, we can use authentication, we can configure BFT, and we can configure the hello and hold times of the ERP. We can configure the passive interface, the split horizon, and the summary address in interface mode, and the other mode we are going to use is the topology mode. Whenever we type the topology base, we have these options, and in the topology base, we can define EIGRP specific commands, we can change the distance of the EIGRP, and we can change the metric of redistributed routes. We can modify the metrics and parameters for advertisements. We can use redistribution commands. We can change the timers again and we can use the variance commands too, and here is the most important part of this session. For example, here is the classic EIGRP configuration, and this site is the EIGRP configuration of the same configuration in here. As you can see, to configure we are using the interface name and we are giving our IP address. Okay, then we are enabling IP version six. These are the same steps as in mode 2, but the only difference is IP. Hello EIGRP, IP version six-enabled AI RP one, and IP version six bandwidth person Aigrpone for the commands; as you can see, we're using the named mode to configure these guys. When we are using the name mode, we are typing "router EIGRP" and this time the name is "NW 13." Then we are getting under the IP version 4 autosystem one command, and we are advertising our route by using the network 100 00:22 command; this line is the equivalent of this line. Then if we want to configure the EIGRP hello to 30 like in this line, we need to get the AF interface mode and the interface name. We just type "interface ethernet" and we type "hello 30" instead of IP hello EIG 130." As you can see, the EIGRP named configuration is pretty straightforward. Then we address family IP for VRF Savage autonomous, since we are advertising a network with 0 and that's the equivalent of "spammy IPV" for VRF Savage. Four. Five. As you can see as we type address family IP version six autonomous system one, we are getting into the IP version six configuration, and here is the equivalent of this line. IPversion six percent bandwidth EIGRP 140 is the equivalent of bandwidth percent 40, and that's it. And if we want to verify the EIGRP named configuration, we are using the show IpiJapp protocol to show IPI JP address family IP version four or six with a number of interfaces, detail neighbors, detail topology links, or event comments.

5. LAB - EIGRP Configuration

Hello everybody. Let's go with the lab. We are going to take a look at the EIGRP configuration on GNS 3 together. Okay, we have four steps to complete. In the first step, we need to configure the network above with EIGRP using autonomous system number r 50. OkAdditionally, EIGRP should not work as a classful routing protocol, which means I need to use No Auto. I need to close Auto summarization.That means, all right, in the second step, an EIGRP neighbourhood should not be established on any interface. If there are no EIGRP routers, that means using passive interfaces somewhere. I'm going to show you where. All right. The third BB router should aggregate networks between 1255 into a single network. The loop packs, as you can see there. To reach ten, use unequal load balancing in the fourth BB router. This is where BB is going with their way of using unequal load balancing. I'm going to show you how. All right, let's start with the first thing we need to configure the network above using autonomous system 50. All right, guys. I'm going to advertise this network and this network as a single statement on Bibarrater by using 10 10 0. I'm going to advertise the loop X by using 172, 30. Then I'm going to do a different thing, and I'm going to just use the interface IP addresses for two and router three to advertise them into EiJRP. All right, let's start with the BB router. I'm going to the other one, which is the BB-closed-up thing. All right, let's go with the BB Routtery GRP 50. All right, what quote question wants me to close the auto summary for S? First. I need to use "no auto." Then I'm going to advertise the networks. But first, what I'm offering to you is to just take a look at the interface by using Show. The interface brief command interfaces look properly configured, and I'm going to now advertise them. Okay, network zero, and I'm going to advertise the loopback addresses zero and 255.255 using a wild card mask, which means every network beginning with okay. Alright, I finished the baby. I'm going to reach routes two and three right now. Show IP interference. I'm just going to hit the invoice IP addresses this time by email using a wildcard mask. Okay, rotary I grew 50 and now Auto again 24. All right, we have a new address. I'm going to check it later. Okay, let's move on to the router tree and the Show IP interface, which is a quick noado. And I'm hitting the interface IP addresses in here too. Okay, we have two adjacencies in here. Here is the good news. And let's check the adjacencies of PB first. Okay, we have two. This one is more like three, actually. And these are two neighbors. Okay, three and one. and here, neighbors. They are more like one and three. I'm sorry. Right, the first step seems to be okay; what I'm going to configure is now the second step, which says that an EIGRP neighbourhood should not be established on any interface if there are no AIGRP routers. Can you see an interface that has no neighbours at face zero zero of BB but has three neighbours in here? And he has a neighbour ship, or rather two. It's the neighbour of the other three or faster reservoirs, rather than two from faster zero. But in here, we don't have any routers. And that means I don't need to send hello packets from here. So I need to close it by using the passiveinterface command for the fast eternal ones, ones, and two. All right, let's go. Passive interface, Fast Ethernet Type 1. Okay, we accomplished this. Step two. Let's go with the trio. Bibi's router should summarise networks between and 7255 as a single network. Okay, but first I have to check the routing table of router three. So what am I seeing about this look back, guys? I'm on the three-end end of typing "show IP route." As you can see in this image, I'm seeing all the packs. All right, now I'm going to use route summarization on Brother to summarise this route. Actually, to summarise the loopbacks on Bibarrautter, we have two interfaces: S zero zero and FAST 10. I'm going to use the summary address for both this and this interface. If I just summarise here, it will be summarised on the rather two routing table, but not on the rather two routing table. So to both summarise it, I'm going to use festival, and I'm going to use password to summarize. All right, let's go to BB. BB, where are you, BB? Okay, let's check the loop backs.All right, this guy and I are going to choose the proper IPM Summit mask to summarize. Okay, IP summary address 50.30 with a subnet mask that covers all lookbacks for this guy. Okay, if you don't believe me, please comeback to CCNA and calculate it again. All right, what I've done is configure fastener zero on this interface. So let's check what we're seeing on the router tree, or rather, two. Side. I'm a rather big tree. As you can see, we have our sunrise exactly here, which is 00:21. All right, let's go ahead with this third step. BB should instead summarise the networks that connect them and treat them as a single network. Okay, to summarise all these loopbacks I'm going to use, just use the summarization for fast Internet Zero and the faster net of the BB router. Okay, I'm going to go with one and the IP summary address EIGRP 500. Then I'm going to configure the same thing for All right, and now summarise those routes from my fastener and fasten 10 ports. Okay, let's go ahead. Take a look at the rather large IP writing table of rather three.This time, show the IP route. Okay, instead of all the routes I just saw from their loop backs, I'm seeing a summary route right now. Okay, let's take a look at router two. All right, I'm receiving a summerroute in here too as well.Okay, as you can see in this example, I'm not getting all of these prefixes and instead just a slash. 24, 21. Instead of receiving all of these guys separately, three were accomplished as the last step. BB should instead use unequal load balancing to achieve a 10:1 200:24 network. All right, I'm going to configure a variance command to perform unequal load balancing on bib rather. All right, I'm going to send two packets from one path, for example, and I'm going to send one packet when I'm sending two packets from the other path. All right? To configure it on a BB router, I'm going to this guy again rather than EIGRP, and I'm just going to configure warians with the value of two. This guy was accomplished too.

CCNP ENARSI (300-410) : OSPF

1. 3_1 Single Area OSPF

Open the shortest path. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) and is commonly used in large enterprise networks. OSPF is a linked routing protocol, providing fast corners, convergence, and excellent scalability. OSPF employs the extraalgorithm and the cost value as the metric to determine the best path. OSPF has fast convergence and a administrative distance value of 110. Let's go ahead with the OSPF components. In an OSPF running router, we have three main tables, and they are the neighbour table, the topology table, and the routing table. The neighbour table keeps the list of directly connected and OSPF-running neighbors. For example, in the neighbour table of router one, we have the information for router two and router three. And in the neighbour table of the router three, we have the information for the router two and the router one. And the topology table keeps the topology map, which lists all possible paths for a destination. For example, in the topology table of the other three to reach this network, we have two options, as you can see, and they have two from here and from here. And all these guys will be in the topology table, and we also have the routing table, which keeps the best paths for the destination. And, as you know, we have two options from the three to get here: here and here. And one of these guys—this guy or this guy—will be selected as the best route and will be installed into our routing table. We have two types of OSPF designs: single area and multi-area SPF. In a single-area network, all routers belong to just one area, which is mostly the backbone area, which is area zero. This kind of design is suitable for mostly small networks mostly.As you can see, we have area zero, which is the backbone area, and all riders belong to area zero. As you can see, the second OSPF design option is multi-array OSPF. In this design, we have more than one area, and other areas must connect to area zero. This design is a suitable solution for large networks to decrease processing overhead. As you can see here, we have area 500, area 60, and other areas. Each area is connected to area zero. For example, area 60 is connected to area zero by using router three, which is an area border router, and area 50 is connected to area zero by using router two, which is an area border router. Again, an area border router ABR is a kind of router that is located near the border between one or more OSPF areas. It is used to establish a connection between the backbone area and the other OSPF areas. It's a member of both the main backbone network and the specific areas to which it connects. As you can see, we have two area border routers, which are actually two and three. One interface of the three is in the backbone area, the other interface is in the area 61 interface of the router, two in the area zero, and the other interface is in the area 50, and these guys are known as the area border router. Let's go ahead with the OSPF packet types. There are several types of packets exchanged between OSPF routers to provide communication with each other and their hello database description: link state request, link state update, and link state acknowledgement. The Hello packet discovers the other OSPs speaking routers on the common subnet and declares the parameters that two routers must agree on in order to become neighbors. Hello packets are also used to elect Dr and BDRrouters and are broadcast to 220 as a multicast. Please pay attention that hello and debtintervals must match on both routers toestablish an adjacency between each router. For Ethernet links, the default Hello Interval is 10 seconds, and that interval is 40 seconds. But these intervals can be modified with commands, as you can see here. For example, you can enter interface mode and define a new hello and interval time. For example, let's say that we have two others—rather than one—and that these two are connected to each other. And as you know, the default hello timer is 10 seconds for this interface. Let's say that we are sending hellos every 10 seconds to another two, and this guy is also sending hello packets every 10 seconds. For example, if I increase the hello interval in this case to five, the OSPF neighbour ship between one and two fails immediately. If I change this guy's hello in total to 5 seconds, the neighbour will come back. Let's go ahead with the DVD for the linkstate routing protocols. It is essential that the linkstate database for all the routers remain synchronized. This synchronisation will begin as soon as an adjacency forms between the neighbors. OSPF uses the DBD packets for that purpose. After the DVD packet exchange process, the router may find it does not have an up-to-date database. The LSR packet is used to request pieces of neighbour databases that are more up to date.Update packet used for sending specifically requested linksto informations which are requested by LSR. LSU packets can contain one or more LSAs and require acknowledgement for the receipt of each LSA. Multiple LSAs can be acknowledged in a single LSA packet. Let's go ahead with the router ID term. The OSPF Router ID is used to identify a specific device within an OSPF database and must be unique to prevent unintended OSPF database problems. Guys, keep in mind that Router ID is not an IP address and is not part of any routable subnet in the network. Router ID is determined, as you can see here. The first is that you can define your RouterID through manual configuration on the router. Secondly, the highest IP on a loopback interface will be selected as the router ID, and the third highest IP on a nonloop interface will be chosen as a router ID. Let's go ahead with the OSPs network types. We have point to point networks whichis a direct connection between two Routters. As you can see here, we have broadcast multi access.There is a connection between multiple routers over an Internet network. As you can see, we have another MBMA nonbroadcast multi connection between multiple routers, but this time for emeraldnetwork point to multiplication over an MBMA with hub and spokes. As you can see in here we have Hubsand spokes and we have also virtual links whichare used for connection to backbone area. If there is a physical problem, let's go ahead with the OSP's designated router term. Large local networks that have many routing devices can produce heavy control traffic as link state advertisements are flooded across the network. As you can see here, OSP-designated routers are the collection points of LSAs and are used to alleviate the potential traffic problem on all multi-access networks. Broadcast and the MBMA a BDR backup designatedrouter is elected in case designated router fails. Non-DR and non-PDR routers are known as Dr. Other Drudders communicate with the truths or multicast by using 2240 five, and please pay attention to that, guys. That's an important point. a rather established full adjacency only with the Dr. and the BDR. It stays in a two-way conversation with all its neighbors. Let's go ahead with the DR election process. In the Dr election process rather withthe highest interface priority is elected Drand the second highest is the BDR. If there is a tie at the interface priority, the highest router ID will be elected Dr, the second highest will be DDR, and the boot up sequence will influence the Dr election process. We can also change the interface priority by using the IPOs PF priority, and we can define a priority value for the interface between routers. Authentication methods can be used for OSPF security, and we have two types of authentication: the simple password and the MD Five.In simple password authentication, the password is sent as plaintext at the update message, and in ND file authentication, the password is determined by the ND file algorithm, which is the most secure method. And here is the configuration for the MD Five OSPF MD Five authentication can be globally enabled for all interfaces or can be configured on a per-interface basis, as you can see here. For example, if you want to enable it, enter the OSPF, sorry, configrouter mode by typing router OSPF and the process number. Then we are typing area zero authenticationmessage digest which means I'm going touse authentication for the area zero. Then we can get into the interface mode and use the IP or SPF message digest key, and the key number will be MD-5 and our key will be "Network." For example, let's go ahead with the network command. network command is used to activate OSPF on the specified interfaces. Specifying an interface with the command will include the interface in the OSPF routing process. For example, to configure an OSPF here, we type "OSPF" and select a process number. Then we are typing the network statements, as you can see. And we are using the wildcard masks and the area keyword and the name of the area, as you can see. Let's go ahead with the passive interface command. The passive interface command is used to disable sending updates out from a specific interface. Ostef does not send hello packets on interfaces configured with the passive interface command. The passive interface command ensures security and efficient use of resources like bandwidth. For example, in router one, as you can see here, we are typing a passive interface command and a passive interface gig, which is this interface. And that means we're not going to send hello packets from here. Okay, do we need to send Hello packets from this interface? Actually, no, because we don't have any neighbours in here to form a neighborhood. Let's go ahead with the OSPF. Cost OSPF calculates the metric with a cost value. You can find the cost by dividing the reference bandwidth by the interface bandwidth according to the default OSPF metric. Calculation of Cost Volatility the default OSPF cost for a fast Internet interface, for example, as you can see here, and the Gigabit Internet interfaces are assumed to be the same and to be just one. For example, if you want to check the cost, you can use the Show IP OSPF interface and the name of the interface and see the cost of the Gigabit Internet interface as one. To verify the OSPF neighbors, we are using the Show IP OSPF neighbour command. For example, on router one, if we type the ShowIpospf neighbour command as you can see here, we are seeing the router ID of router two, which is 2222, and we are seeing the state of the neighborhood, which is a full state. And we are seeing the IP address of the remote site, and we are seeing the interface that we are forming the neighbourhood with. To verify the OSPF protocol, we can usethe Show IP protocols command and we cancheck the OSPF and the process number. And we can also see that if there's an outscoming orthe incoming filter or not, we can check the router IDvalues and the networks that we are routing for.

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